The phrases "joint range of motion" and "muscle length range" have specific meanings. Joint range of motion refers to the number of degrees of motion present in a joint. Descriptions of joints and joints. The measurement tables include references to normal ranges of joint motion. Muscle length range, also expressed in terms of degrees of joint motion, refers to length muscle. For muscles that pass over a single joint, the range of motion of the joint and the length range of the muscle will measure the same. Both can be normal, limited, or excessive. In some cases, when measuring the joint interval movement, it is necessary to allow the muscle to loosen at a joint to determine the full range of motion of the joint in the other. For example, when measuring the knee joint flexion interval, the hip flexes to allow the rectum to move . The femur is free over the hip joint and allows for a full range of joint motion at the knee. When measuring the range From flexion of the hip joint, the knee flexes to allow the hamstrings to loosen at the knee joint and allow for a full. joint range of motion in the hip.


It is simpler and more precise to use a measuring device that allows you to rest the fixed arm of the caliper the table and examiner to position the movable arm in line or parallel to the axis of the humerus or femur, depending on the case it can be. The fulcrum will shift to allow for this change, but the angle will remain the same, like if the stationary arm was held parallel to the table along the trunk in line with the shoulder or hip joint.


There is an interesting correlation between the joint's total range of motion and the muscle length range chosen as a standard for hamstring and hip flexor length tests. In any case, the length of the muscle taken as the standard is approximately 80% of the total joint range of motion of the two joints through which the muscles pass. The following are the joint intervals considered normal:

Hip: 10 ° in extension, 125 ° in flexion, for a total of 135 °

Knee: 0 ° extension, 140 ° flexion, for a total of 140 °

Total of both joints: 275 °

Hip Flexor Length Test Used as a Standard: Supine, with the low back and sacrum flat on the table, hip joint extended, and hip flexors elongated 135° over the hip joint. With the knee flexed over the end of the table at an angle of 80°, the two-joint hip flexors are elongated 80° over the knee joint, for a total of 215°. Thus, 215° divided by the 275° is 78.18%, and range of muscle length is 78% of total joint range.

Hamstring Length Test Used as a Standard: Supine, with the low back and sacrum flat on the table and straight-leg raising to an 80° angle with table. Hamstrings are elongated 140° over the knee by full extension

and 80° over the hip joint by the straight-leg raising, or a total of 220°. Thus, 220° divided by 275° is 80%, and range of muscle length is 80% of total joint range.


Muscle length tests are performed to determine if the muscle length range is normal, limited, or excessive. Excessively long muscles are often weak and allow adaptive shortening of opposite muscles; too short muscles are usually strong and keep opposite muscles in a long position. The muscle length test consists of movements that increase the distance between the origin and the insertion, thus stretching the muscles in opposite directions to those of the muscle actions. An accurate muscle length test generally requires the bone of origin to be in a fixed position as the insertion bone moves in the direction of the muscle stretch. Length tests use passive or actively assisted movements to determine how long a muscle can be stretched.


As defined by OConnell and Gardner:

Passive failure of a muscle is indicated whenever a full range of motion of any joint or joint that the muscle. Crosses are limited by the length of the muscles, rather than the arrangement of the ligaments or structures of the joint itself.

As defined by Kendall et al.

Passive bankruptcy. Shortening of a bi-articular (or multiarticular) muscle; the length of the muscle is not enough. Allow normal stretching on both joints at the same time, for example, the short hamstrings. As defined by OConnell and Gardner:

If a muscle crossing two or more joints produces simultaneous movement in all the joints it crosses, it soon reaches a length where it can no longer generate a useful amount of force. Under these conditions, the Muscle is said to be actively insufficient. An example of such insufficiency occurs when trying to reach full hip extension with maximum knee flexion. The two-joint hamstrings are unable to shorten enough to produce a full range of motion for both joints at the same time.


As defined by Kendall et al.:

Active insufficiency. The inability of a Class III or IV two-joint (or multijoint) muscle to generate an effective

force when placed in a fully shortened position. The same meaning is implied by the expression "the muscle has

been put on a slack" .

The two definitions above only apply to two-joint or multijoint muscles. However, the statement that

one-joint muscles exhibit their greatest strength at completion of range of motion has appeared in all

four editions of Kendall's Muscles: Testing and Function. Knowing where the muscle exhibits its

greatest strength in relation to the range of motion is of utmost importance for determining test position.

After careful analysis, it is evident that there are four classifications

Post a Comment