The previous section was mainly concerned with posture in relation to the adult. This section introduces a variety of concepts related to the development of postural habits in the growing individual and a variety of influences that influence that development. There is no attempt to give the various concepts an exhaustive or egalitarian treatment.

The authors hope that this material will be useful from the point of view of prevention and that it creates, by recognizing the factors involved in postural development, a more positive approach to provide, within the limits available, the best possible environment for good posture. Good posture is not an end in itself; is part of General well-being. Ideally, posture education and training should be part of the overall experience rather than a separate discipline. To the extent that parents and teachers are able to recognize influences and habits that help developing good or bad posture can contribute to this aspect of well-being in the daily life of growing individuals. However, posture education and training should not be neglected in a good health education program; attention must be paid to observable defects. When instructions are given, they must be simple and precise; While it shouldn't be overlooked, it shouldn't be underestimated either. It should be done in a way that captures the child's interest and cooperation.


Good postural development depends on good structural and functional development of the body, which in in turn, it strongly depends on proper nutrition. The influence of nutrition on correct structural development of skeletal and muscle tissues is particularly important. Rickets, for example, which is often responsible for severe skeletal deformities in children, is a vitamin D deficiency disease. Once growth is complete, poor nutrition is less likely to cause structural failure that directly affects position. In this phase, deficiencies are more likely to interfere with physiological function and are represented posturally in a position of fatigue. The body uses food not only for growth but also as a fuel, turning it into heat and energy. If the fuel is insufficient, the production of energy decreases, as does the general physiological efficiency. Nutritional deficiencies in adults are more likely They occur when the individual is placed under unusual physiological demands over a period of time.


Some physical defects, illnesses and disabilities have associated postural problems. These conditions can be roughly divided into three groups regarding the importance of attention to posture in their treatment. The first group consists mainly of physical defects in which the postural aspects are more potential than real during the initial stages, then become a problem only if the defect cannot be completely corrected by medical or surgical means. These defects can be visual, auditory, skeletal (eg, clubfoot or hip dislocation), neuromuscular (eg, brachial plexus injury), or muscular (eg, sprained neck). The second group includes conditions that are potentially disabling in their own right, but in which continued attention to posture from an early stage can minimize the disabling effects. In an arthritic condition of the spine (eg, Marie-Striimpell), if the body can remain in good functional alignment during the time spinal fusion occurs, the individual may have a slightly noticeable and only a moderate disability when casting is performed. the merger is complete. However, if the postural aspect is not taken into account, the trunk is usually in marked flexion when the fusion of the spine is completed. This is a position of severe deformity and associated severe disability. The third group contains conditions in which a permanent degree of disability is present as a result of injury or illness, but in which additional postural stress can greatly increase the disability. Lower limb amputation, for example, places an inevitable additional load on the remaining supporting structures. A stand an alignment that minimizes (as much as possible) the mechanical stresses of position and movement goes a long way in preventing the breakdown of these structures. 


Numerous environmental factors influence the development and maintenance of good posture. These environmental influences should be as supportive of good posture as it is practical. When there is no major adjustment if possible, small adjustments will often go a long way. The following discussion takes into consideration factors such as chairs, desks, and beds, as they illustrate environmental influences on sitting posture and lying positions. After children start school, the amount of time they spend sitting increases significantly. The school seat is an important factor affecting posture.

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