Spasm is an involuntary contraction of a muscle or segment within a muscle that results from a painful nerve stimulus. Irritation to the root, plexus or peripheral nerve branch will tend to cause spasms of various kinds muscles, while spasm caused by irritation of nerve endings within a muscle can be limited to muscle involved or disseminated due to reflex pain mechanisms. Treatment of muscle spasm depends on the type of spasm. Relief of spasm resulting from initial nerve irritation at the root, trunk, or peripheral branch should depend on the relief of such nerve irritation. Aggressive treatment of the muscle or muscles with spasm will tend to 10 aggravate symptoms. For example, avoid using heat, massaging, and stretching the hamstrings in cases of acute sciatica. Rigid immobilization of the limb is also contraindicated. Protective spasm can occur as a result of injury to underlying structures, such as a ligament or bone is Protective "splinting," as is often the case after a back injury, prevents movement and further irritation of the back the injured structure. Protective spasm must be treated by applying protective support to relieve the muscles of this extraordinary function. Muscle spasm tends to subside rapidly and pain diminishes when support is applied.

Applies. As the muscles relax, the support maintains protective function to allow for any healing the underlying injury provoked the protective muscle response. In addition to the exemption from the movement restriction, The support provides additional relief by putting pressure on the twitching muscles. The positive response to direct pressure on the muscle distinguishes this type of spasm from that caused by the initial irritation of the nerve. In the lower back, where protective muscle spasms frequently occur, a lumbar pad brace or a corset with folded braces can be used to conform to the contour of the lower back, for both support, immobilization and pressure . In most cases, it can be assumed that the underlying alteration is severe enough to require the use of a brace for at least a few days to allow healing. However, it is not uncommon to find, when the acute onset of pain is caused by a sudden exaggeration of movement, that a rigid posture persists due to the patient's fear of movement rather than the continued need for a protective reaction. Because of this possibility, it is often helpful to apply heat and light massage as a diagnostic aid in determining the extent of the protective reaction.

Segmental muscle spasm is an involuntary contraction of the uninjured segment of a muscle following an injury to the muscle. The contraction of this part stresses the injured part and a relaxed condition develops. Pain associated with tension within the muscle can be delineated from the margins of the muscle or generalized due to reflex or referred pain mechanisms. Treatment requires immobilization in a position that relieves tension from the affected muscle. A positive response can also be obtained by gently massaging the spasm area.

The muscle spasm associated with the tendon injury differs from the previous one when the tension is exerted on the tendon and not on a part of the muscle. Tendons contain many stretch-sensitive nerve endings, and the pain associated with tendon injury tends to be severe.

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