MOVEMENTS IN FLEXION AND EXTENSION OF THE CORONAL PLANE

MOVEMENTS IN FLEXION AND EXTENSION OF THE CORONAL PLANE

A coronal axis runs horizontally from side to side and lies in the coronal plane. If the coronal plane could leaning on one of its axes, it would only bend back and forth. It would not bend sideways or twist on itself.

The coronal plane cannot bend, but the body can bend. As you move back and forth from this plane (i.e. in the sagittal direction), flexion and extension movements of the body occur. Flexion is the movement of bending forward (ie in an anterior direction) of the head, neck, trunk, upper extremity and hip; and movement in the posterior direction for the knee, ankle and toes. Extension is movement in the opposite direction to flexion (ie in a posterior direction) of the head, neck, trunk, upper extremity and hip; and anterior movements for the knee, ankle and toes. The difference occurs because the developmental pattern of the lower limbs differs from that of the upper limbs. In an initial phase, the extremities of the embryo are directed ventrally, the flexor protrudes medially and the big toes and cranial thumbs. With further development, the limbs rotate 90 ° at the waist joint, so that that the thumbs rotate laterally and the flexor surfaces of the upper limbs ventrally, while the big toes rotate medially and the flexor surfaces of the lower limbs dorsally. As a result of this 90 ° rotation of the limbs in opposite directions, the movement that brings the hand and the anterior surface of the forearm closer together is called flexion, because it is performed by the flexor muscles. The movement that brings the foot and the front surface of the leg together is called extension, because it is performed by the extensor muscles.

Hyperextension is the term used to describe excessive movement in the direction of extension, such as in hyperextension.

of the knees Also used in reference to the increase in lumbar curvature as in a lordosis with anterior pelvic tilt, or to the increase in cervical curvature as in a forward head position. In these cases, the range of motion through which the lumbar or cervical spine moves is not excessive, but the position of extension is greater than posturally desirable. Extremity and hip; and movement in the posterior direction for the knee, ankle and toes.

Extension is movement in the opposite direction to flexion (ie in a posterior direction) of the head, neck, trunk, upper extremity and hip; and anterior movements for the knee, ankle and toes. The difference occurs because the developmental pattern of the lower limbs differs from that of the upper limbs. In an initial phase, the extremities of the embryo are directed ventrally, the flexor protrudes medially and the big toes and cranial thumbs. With further development, the extremities rotate 90 ° at the waist joint, so that the thumbs rotate laterally and the flexor surfaces of the upper limbs ventrally, while the big toes medially and the flexor surfaces of the extremities lower dorsally . As a result of this rotation of the extremities by 90 ° in opposite directions, the movement that brings the hand and the anterior surface of the forearm closer together is called flexion, because it is carried out by the flexor muscles. The movement that brings the foot and the front surface of the leg together is called extension, because it is performed by the extensor muscles.

ABDUCTION AND ADDUCTION

A sagittal axis runs horizontally from front to back and lies in the sagittal plane. If the sagittal plane it could bend on one of its axes, it would bend only sideways. It wouldn't lean forward or backward or twist in itself. The sagittal plane cannot bend, but the body can bend. Moving laterally from this plane (i.e. coronally), movements of adduction, abduction and lateral flexion occur. Abduction is distancing and adduction is movement towards the mid-sagittal plane of the body for all parts of the extremities except the thumb, fingers and toes. For the fingers, abduction and adduction are movements to and from the axial line extending through the third finger. For the fingers, the axial line extends to the second finger. For the thumb.

LATERAL FLEXION

Lateral flexion indicates lateral movements of the head, neck and trunk. It occurs around a sagittal axis on one side (i.e., coronal).

SLIDE

Gliding movements occur when the joint surfaces are flat or slightly curved and an articular surface is sliding the other. The translational movement of the scapula over the chest is an example of a sliding movement.

CIRCUMDUCTION

Circumduction is a movement that successively combines flexion, abduction, extension and adduction in which the moving part describes a cone. The proximal end of the limb forms the apex of the cone, serving as a pivot, and the distal end circumscribes a circle. Such movements are possible only in the sphere and socket, condyloid and types of saddle joints.

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