Pain, whether in the muscle, joint, or the nerve itself, is a nerve response. Regardless of where the stimulus may arise, the sensation of pain is conducted by the nerve fibers. The mechanical factors that give rise to pain must therefore directly affect the nerve fibers. Two of these factors need to be considered in poor body mechanics problems. Pressure on the nerve root, trunk, nerve branches, or nerve endings can be caused by some adjacent solid structure, such as bone, cartilage, fascia, scar tissue, or tense muscles. Pain resulting from an enlarged yellow ligament or bulging disc exemplifies pressure on the nerve root. Scalene amicus syndrome for arm pain and piriformis syndrome for sciatica are examples of peripheral nerve irritation. Stress on structures containing nerve endings that are sensitive to deformation, such as stretching or stretching of muscles, tendons, or ligaments, can cause mild or stabbing pain, depending on the severity of the exertion. Forces within the body that exert harmful stress that stress soft tissue often result from prolonged distortion of bone alignment or from a sudden muscle tear. The distribution of pain along the affected nerve path and areas of skin sensory impairment help determine the site of the injury. Pain can be localized below the level of direct involvement or generalized due to referred or reflected pain. In a root injury, pain tends to extend from the origin of the nerve to its periphery, and the sensory involvement of the skin is dermatomatic. Involvement of peripheral nerves is often distinguished from pain below the level of the lesion. Most peripheral nerves contain sensory and motor fibers. Symptoms of pain or tingling generally appear in areas of the skin innervated by the nerve before numbness or weakness develops. Many muscles are innervated by nerves that are purely motor for the muscle, however, symptoms of weakness may appear without previous or concomitant symptoms of pain or tingling.


Spasm is an involuntary contraction of a muscle or segment within a muscle that results from a painful nerve stimulus. Irritation to the root, plexus or peripheral nerve branch will tend to cause spasms of various kinds muscles, while spasm caused by irritation of nerve endings within a muscle can be limited to muscle involved or disseminated due to reflex pain mechanisms. Treatment of muscle spasm depends on the type of spasm. Relief of spasm resulting from initial nerve irritation at the root, trunk, or peripheral branch should depend on the relief of such nerve irritation. Aggressive treatment of the muscle or muscles with spasm will tend to 10 aggravate symptoms. For example, avoid using heat, massaging, and stretching the hamstrings. in cases of acute sciatica. Rigid immobilization of the limb is also contraindicated.

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