NORMAL WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNT

NORMAL WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNT

1. Total WBC count (TC): 4,000 to 11,000/cu mm of blood.

2. Differential WBC count (DC): Given in Table 16.3.

VARIATIONS IN WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNT

Leukocytosis

Leukocytosis is the increase in total WBC count. Leukocytosis occurs in both physiological and pathological conditions.

Leukopenia

Leukopenia is the decrease in total WBC count. The term leukopenia is generally used for pathological conditions

only.

Granulocytosis

Granulocytosis is the abnormal increase in the number of granulocytes.

Granulocytopenia

Granulocytopenia is the abnormal reduction in the number of granulocytes.

Agranulocytosisa

Agranulocytosis is the acute pathological condition characterized by absolute lack of granulocytes.

 PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIATIONS

1. Age: WBC count is about 20,000 per cu mm in infants and about 10,000 to 15,000 per cu mm of

blood in children. In adults, it ranges between 4,000 and 11,000 per cu mm of blood.

2. Sex: Slightly more in males than in females.

3. Diurnal variation: Minimum in early morning and maximum in the afternoon. 4. Exercise: Increases slightly.

5. Sleep: Decreases.

6. Emotional conditions like anxiety: Increases.

7. Pregnancy: Increases.

8. Menstruation: Increases.

9. Parturition: Increases.

PATHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS

All types of leukocytes do not share equally in the increase or decrease of total leukocyte count. In general, the neutrophils and lymphocytes vary in opposite directions.

Leukocytosis

Leukocytosis is the increase in total leukocyte (WBC) count. It occurs in conditions such as:

1. Infections

2. Allergy

3. Common cold

4. Tuberculosis

5. Glandular fever.

Leukemia

Leukemia is the condition which is characterized by abnormal and uncontrolled increase in leukocyte count more than 1,000,000/cu mm. It is also called blood cancer.

Leukopenia

Leukopenia is the decrease in the total WBC count. It occurs in the following pathological conditions:

1. Anaphylactic shock

2. Cirrhosis of liver

3. Disorders of spleen

4. Pernicious anemia

5. Typhoid and paratyphoid

6. Viral infections.

Variation in Differential Leukocyte Count

Neutrophilia

Neutrophilia or neutrophilic leukocytosis is the increase in neutrophil count. It occurs in the following conditions:

1. Acute infections

2. Metabolic disorders

3. Injection of foreign proteins4. Injection of vaccines

5. Poisoning by chemicals and drugs like lead, mercury, camphor, benzene derivatives, etc.

6. Poisoning by insect venom

7. After acute hemorrhage.

Eosinophilia

Eosinophilia is the increase in eosinophil count and it occurs in:

1. Asthma and other allergic conditions

2. Blood parasitism (malaria, filariasis) 3. Intestinal parasitism

4. Scarlet fever.

Basophilia

Basophilia is the increase in basophil count and it occurs in:

1. Smallpox

2. Chickenpox

3. Polycythemia vera.

Monocytosis

Monocytosis is the increase in monocyte count and it occurs in:

1. Tuberculosis

2. Syphilis

3. Malaria

4. Kala-azar

5. Glandular fever.

Lymphocytosis

Lymphocytosis is the increase in lymphocyte count and it occurs in:

1. Diphtheria

2. Infectious hepatitis

3. Mumps

4. Malnutrition

5. Rickets

6. Syphilis

7. Thyrotoxicosis

8. Tuberculosis.

Neutropenia

Neutropenia is the decrease in neutrophil count. It occurs in:

1. Bone marrow disorders

2. Tuberculosis

3. Typhoid

4. Vitamin deficiencies

5. Autoimmune diseases.

Eosinopenia

Decrease in eosinophil count is called eosinopenia. It occurs in:

1. Cushing’s syndrome

2. Bacterial infections

3. Stress

4. Prolonged administration of drugs such as steroids, ACTH, epinephrine.

Basopenia

Basopenia or basophilic leukopenia is the decrease in basophil count. It occurs in:

1. Urticaria (skin disorder)

2. Stress

3. Prolonged exposure to chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Monocytopenia

Monocytopenia is the decrease in monocyte count. It occurs in:

1. Prolonged use of prednisone (immunosuppressant steroid)

2. AIDS

3. Chronic lymphoid leukemia.

Lymphocytopenia

Lymphocytopenia is the decrease in lymphocytes. It occurs in:

1. AIDS

2. Hodgkin’s disease (cancer of the lymphatic system)

3. Malnutrition

4. Radiation therapy

5. Steroid administration.

LIFESPAN OF WHITE BLOOD CELLS

Lifespan of WBCs is not constant. It depends upon the demand in the body and their function. Lifespan of these cells may be as short as half a day or it may be as long as 3 to 6 months.

 

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