APPENDICITIS

APPENDICITIS

Inflammation of appendix is known as appendicitis. Appendix is a small, worm-like appendage, projecting from cecum of ascending colon. It is situated on the lower right side of the abdomen. Appendix does not have any function in human beings. But, it can create major problems when diseased. Appendicitis can develop at any age. However, it is very common between 10 and 30 years of age.

Causes

The cause for appendicitis is not known. It may occur by bacterial or viral infection. It also occurs during blockage of connection between appendix and large intestine by feces, foreign body or tumor.

Features

1. Main symptom of appendicitis is the pain, which starts around the umbilicus and then spreads to the

lower right side of the abdomen. It becomes severe within 6 to 12 hours

2. Nausea

3. Vomiting

4. Constipation or diarrhea

5. Difficulty in passing gas

6. Low fever

7. Abdominal swelling

8. Loss of appetite.

If not treated immediately, the appendix may rupture and the inflammation will spread to the whole body,

leading to severe complications, sometimes even death. Therefore, the treatment of appendicitis is considered as an emergency. Usual standard treatment for appendicitis is appendectomy (surgical removal of appendix).

ULCERATIVE COLITIS

Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), characterized by the inflammation and ulcerative aberrations in the wall of the large intestine. It is also known as colitis or proctitis. Rectum and lower part of the colon are commonly affected. Sometimes, the entire colon is affected.

Ulcerative colitis can occur at any age. More commonly, it affects people in the age group of 15 to 30

years. Rarely it affects 50 to 70 years old people.

Cause

Exact cause for ulcerative colitis is not known. However, it is believed that the interaction between the immune system and viral or bacterial infection causes this disease.

Features

1. Abdominal pain

2. Diarrhea with blood in the stools

3. Early fatigue

4. Loss of appetite and weight

5. Arthritis and osteoporosis

6. Eye inflammation

7. Liver diseases like hepatitis, cirrhosis, etc.

8. Skin rashes

9. Anemia.

FUNCTIONS OF LARGE INTESTINE

1. ABSORPTIVE FUNCTION

Large intestine plays an important role in the absorption of various substances such as:

i. Water

ii. Electrolytes

iii. Organic substances like glucose

iv. Alcohol

v. Drugs like anesthetic agents, sedatives and steroids.

2. FORMATION OF FECES

After the absorption of nutrients, water and other substances, the unwanted substances in the large

intestine form feces. This is excreted out.

3. EXCRETORY FUNCTION

Large intestine excretes heavy metals like mercury, lead, bismuth and arsenic through feces.

4. SECRETORY FUNCTION

Large intestine secretes mucin and inorganic substances like chlorides and bicarbonates.

5. SYNTHETIC FUNCTION

Bacterial flora of large intestine synthesizes folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin K. By this function, large

intestine contributes in erythropoietic activity and blood

clotting mechanism.

FUNCTIONS OF LARGE INTESTINAL JUICE

Neutralization of Acids

Strong acids formed by bacterial action in large intestine are neutralized by the alkaline nature of large intestinal juice. The alkalinity of this juice is mainly due to the presence of large quantity of bicarbonate.

Lubrication Activity

Mucin present in the secretion of large intestine lubricates the mucosa of large intestine and the bowel

contents, so that, the movement of bowel is facilitated. Mucin also protects the mucus membrane of

large intestine by preventing the damage caused by mechanical injury or chemical substances.

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