INFERTILITY Cause & Treatment


Infertility is the inability to produce the offspring. In females, it is the inability to conceive a child by natural process or inability to carry pregnancy till the completion of term. Infertility occurs due to various factors such as immature reproductive system, defective reproductive system, endocrine disorders, etc.

Physio Guideline




1. Decreased Sperm Count –Oligozoospermia

Normal sperm count in a male is about 100 to 150 millions/mL of semen. Infertility occurs when the sperm

count decreases below 20 millions/mL of semen. Sperm count decreases because of disruption of seminiferous tubules or acute infection in testis. In some males, there is possibility of sterility (permanent inability to produce offspring) because of absence of spermatogenesis as in the case of cryptorchidism or underdeveloped testis.

2. Abnormal Sperms

Sometimes, the sperm count may be normal, but the structure of the sperm may be abnormal. The sperms may be without tail and nonmotile or with two heads or with abnormal head. When a large number of abnormal sperms are produced infertility occurs.

3. Obstruction of Reproductive Ducts

Obstruction of reproductive ducts like vas deferens leads to infertility.

4. Other Disorders

i. Cryptorchidism

ii. Trauma

iii. Mumps

iv. Longterm

use of drugs

v. Alcoholism

vi. Genetic disorders

vii. Hypothalamic disorders

viii. Disorders of pituitary, thyroid and pancreas.



1. Abnormalities of Ovary

Sometimes, a thick capsule develops around the ovaries and prevents ovulation. In some women, ovaries develop cysts (membranous sac containing fluid) or become fibrotic (hardened tissues resulting from lymphedema). In these conditions, maturation and release of ovum does not occur.

2. Abnormalities of Uterus

A type of endometrial tissue similar to uterine endometrium grows in the pelvic cavity surrounding the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. It is called endometriosis. And, pregnancy does not occur in this

condition. In some cases, there is low grade infection or inflammation or abnormal hormonal stimulation in the cervix. It leads to the abnormal secretion of thick mucus in cervix, which prevents entry of sperm and fertilization of ovum.

3. Absence of Ovulation

Ovulation does not occur in some females, because of hyposecretion of gonadotropic hormones. Quantities of these hormones are not sufficient enough to cause maturation of ovum or release of ovum. The cycle without ovulation is known as anovulatory cycle.

4. Other Disorders

i. Diabetes mellitus

ii. Renal diseases

iii. Liver diseases

iv. Hypothalamic disorders

v. Disorders of pituitary gland, thyroid and adrenal glands.

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